Here you can find a list of academic publications by DEMAND including journal articles, books and book chapters. A copy of the publication has been provided wherever the paper is available under Open Access.

| Books | Articles | Book chapters | Conference Proceedings |
| DEMAND Conference Proceedings |

There is also a selection of other types of writing by DEMAND.

Online writing  |  Research Insights  |  Pieces of DEMAND   | Kris De Decker writing Submissions to government departments  |  Working papers | DEMAND Dictionary |


Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. and Marsden, G. (2020) Conceptualising Demand: Distinctive approaches to consumption and practice. Routledge, London.

You can watch the launch of the book here. about how much energy society needs are woven into forms of policy analysis, future investment, energy modelling and more. The point, and also the purpose of this book is to articulate and challenge the tacit theories and understandings on which these assumptions depend.

In the opening chapters we claim that the tendency to conceptualise demand as an expression and outcome of consumer choice or as a consequence of technological efficiency is a significantly limiting feature. It is so in that such approaches suppose that demand is defined by and also confined to topics and issues that are, on the face of it, governed by individual behaviour and by peoples’ values, preferences and abilities to pay. This is such a familiar approach that commentators rarely give the underlying logic a second though but as long as policy makers, researchers and practitioners think of demand in these terms they are unlikely to do more than scratch the surface.

The book works through the practical and theoretical implications of the view that resources such as energy are consumed and transformed in accomplishing a huge range of social practices (e.g. heating, commuting, laundering, cooling etc.) and that demand is an outcome of these social, institutional and material arrangements. In all of these examples and more, the details are not pre-given: what practices ‘require’ changes over time, at different rates and in different ways. The extent and timing of energy demands is a consequence of these processes.

In building on these ideas, and in weaving them together, the book is organized around five propositions: That demand is derived from practices; that it is made and not simply met; that it is materially imbedded; that it is temporally unfolding and that it is modified and modulated, deliberately or not, via many forms of policy and governance.

These propositions apply as well to discussions about the demand for water, or for education, policing or health care. At the same time, there are revealing and instructive differences in how demand is conceptualized in different fields. For example, in the transport sector, demand is often said to be ‘derived’ from what people do – an interpretation that fits well with the approach we take, but that hardly ever figures in discussions of energy use in buildings. Similarly, although there is no obvious equivalent in the energy world, in public health, the concept of an obesogenic environment (an environment that favours practices that contribute to obesity) has informed interventions designed to modify practices of eating and exercise, and to do so in ways that promote well-being and reduce the demand for health care. As these unusually adventurous responses remind us, social practices and related patterns of demand are not fixed for all time. Nor are they immune from policy influence. In fact policy makers are constantly intervening (and not intervening) in ways that shape the very foundations of demand. What is missing, and what we hope to provide, is an account of the processes involved. It is for this reason that we write about how demand is constituted, how it changes and how it might be shaped and steered.

Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (2019) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy SectorRoutledge: London.
This book presents a valuable and thought-provoking resource for students, researchers and policy-makers interested in energy demand, politics and policy.  Drawing on recent research in energy and transport studies, and combining this with concepts from sociology, economics, social theory and technology studies, the chapters in this collection review and challenge different aspects of received wisdom. Brief but critical introductions to classic notions like those of ‘energy efficiency’, ‘elasticity’, ‘energy services’ and the ‘energy trilemma’, together with discussions and analyses of well-worn phrases about ‘low hanging fruit’ and ‘keeping the lights on’, articulate aspects of the energy debate that are often taken for granted. In re-working these established themes and adding twists to familiar tales, the authors develop a repertoire of new ideas about the fundamentals of energy demand and carbon reduction.

Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) (2018) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Routledge: London.
This is the first book to examine the interdependence between infrastructures and the practices of daily life. It offers an analysis of how new technologies, lifestyles and standards become normalised and fall out of use. It brings together diverse disciplines – history, sociology, science studies – to develop social theories and accounts of how infrastructures and practices constitute each other at different scales and over time. It shows how networks and demands are steered and shaped, and how social and political visions are woven into infrastructures, past, present and future.

Hui, A., Day, R. & Walker, G. (eds.) (2018) Demanding Energy: Space, Time and ChangeCham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. The introduction to this edited collection starts with the question of: what social processes constitute and make energy demand? Or in other words, what is energy for? In investigating social practices which contribute to the constitution, patterning or transformation of energy demand, the contributors to this volume draw from socio-theoretical understandings of space, time, and change in order to provide new and sophisticated contributions to discussions of energy demand through a range of diverse empirical cases.

Hui, A., Schatzki, T. R. & Shove, E. (eds.) (2017) The Nexus of Practice: Connections, constellations and practitioners, London: Routledge. The introduction to this edited collection discusses how the contributors develop new theoretical resources for theories of practice by engaging with several overlapping themes related to the ‘nexus of practices’. These themes – suffusing, threading through, largeness, changing connections, and practitioners – provide an innovative way of organising the volume and develop new concepts for thinking about how practices are conducted and interconnected in various ways.

Hazas, M. & Nathan, L. (eds.) (2017) Digital Technology and Sustainability: Engaging the ParadoxLondon: Routledge. This book brings together diverse voices from across the field of sustainable human computer interaction (SHCI) to discuss what it means for digital technology to support sustainability and how humans and technology can work together optimally for a more sustainable future.

Torriti, J. (2016) Peak Energy Demand and Demand Side Response, London: Routledge.  This book presents evidence on a set of Demand Side Response activities, ranging from price-based to incentive-based programmes and policies. Examples are drawn from different programmes for both residential and non-residential sectors of electricity demand, including Time of Use tariffs, Critical Peak Pricing Automated Demand Controllers and Ancillary Services. The book also looks at the actual energy saving impacts of smart meters, the activities which constitute peak demand and the potential opportunities associated with European smart grids and Capacity Markets.

Garabuau-Moussaoui, I. & Pierre, M. (2016) Practiques sociales et usages de l’énergie. Paris: Lavoisier Tec and Doc. Energy consumption has been studied by EDF R&D researchers for 30 years through several issues such as smart meters, buildings, electric vehicles and decentralised renewable energy. This book, although concerned with energy use, intends to go beyond the view of users as passive recipients of energy policy and technical devices. Instead, energy related practices are here understood through users, material arrangements, delivery and production and social norms, as all of these contribute to producing the framework that gives meaning and direction to these practices.


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Anderson, B. (2016) ‘Laundry, energy and time: Insights from 20 years of time-use diary data in the United Kingdom’. Energy Research and Social Science, 22, 125-136. DOI:

Blue, S. (2017) ‘Institutional rhythms: Combining practice theory and rhythmanalysis to conceptualise processes of institutionalisation’. Time & Society.  DOI: 10.1177/0961463X17702165

Carlsson-Hyslop, A. (2016) ‘Past Management of Energy Demand: Promotion and Adoption of Electric Heating in Britain 1945-1964’. Environment and History, 22, 75-102. DOI: 10.3197/096734016X14497391602242

Cass, N. (2017) ‘Energy-related standards and UK speculative office development’. Building Research & Information, 1-21.  DOI: 10.1080/09613218.2017.1333351

Cass, N., Schwanen, T. & Shove, E. (2018) ‘Infrastructures, intersections and societal transformations’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change. DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.039 

Cass, N. & Shove, E. (2018) ‘Standards? Whose standards?’, Architectural Science Review.
DOI: 10.1080/00038628.2018.1502158

Cliff, A. & Rinkinen, J. (2018) ‘Visualising electricity demand: use and users of a 3D chart from the 1950s’. Science Museum Group Journal, 9. DOI: 10.15180.180905

Day, R., Walker, G. & Simcock, N. (2016) ‘Conceptualising Energy Use and Energy Poverty Using a Capabilities Framework’. Energy Policy, 93, 255-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.03.019

Faulconbridge, J., Cass, N. & Connaughton, J. (2017) ‘How market standards affect building design: the case of low energy design in commercial offices’. Environment and Planning A

Fox, E., Hitchings, R., Day, R. & Venn, S. (2017) ‘Demanding distances in later life leisure travel’. Geoforum, 82, 102-111. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.04.007

Hitchings, R., Venn, S. & Day, R. (2016) ‘Assumptions about later life travel and their implications: pushing people around?’ Ageing and Society. DOI: 10.1017/S0144686X16000738

Hui, A. (2017) ‘Understanding the positioning of “the electric vehicle consumer”: variations in interdisciplinary discourses and their implications for sustainable mobility systems’.  Applied Mobilities. DOI: 10.1080/23800127.2017.1380977

Hui, A. & Walker, G. (2017) ‘Concepts and methodologies for a new relational geography of energy demand: Social practices, doing-places and settings’. Energy Research & Social Science DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2017.09.032

Jarrigeon, A., Massot, M. H., Pierre, M. & Pradel, B. (2015). ‘Les Routines Du Quotidien – L’épreuve De La Mobilité électrique’. Espace-Population Société, 1.

Kragh-Furbo, M. & Walker, G. (2018) ‘Electricity as (Big) Data: Metering, spatiotemporal granularity and value’. Big Data & Society, 5(1), 1-15. DOI: 10.1177/2053951718757254

Kuijer, L. & Watson, M. (2017) ‘That’s when we started using the living room’: Lessons from a local history of domestic heating in the United Kingdom’. Energy Research and Social Science, 28, 77-85.  DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2017.04.010

Kuijer, L. & Bakker, C. (2015) ‘Of Chalk and Cheese: Behaviour Change and Practice Theory in Sustainable Design’. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 8(3), 219-230. DOI: 10.1080/19397038.2015.1011729

Labanca, N. & Bertoldi, P. (2018) ‘Beyond energy efficiency and individual behaviours: policy insights and from social practice theories’. Energy Policy, 115, 494 -502. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.027

Lane, R., Follett, K. & Lindsay, J. (2018) ‘Unsustainable trajectories of domestic information technology use in Australia: Exploring diversity and the life course’. The Geographical Journal, 1-2. DOI: 10.1111/geoj.12260

López-Rodríguez, M. A., Santiago, I., Trillo-Montero, D., Torriti, J. & Moreno-Munoz, A.(2013) ‘Analysis and Modelling of Active Occupancy of the Residential Sector in Spain: An Indicator of Residential Electricity Consumption’. Energy Policy, 62, 742-751. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.095

Lucas, K.  Mattioli, G., Verlinghieri, E. & Guzman, A. (2016) ‘Transport poverty and its adverse social consequences’.  Institution of Civil Engineers – Transport. DOI: 10.1680/jtran.15.00073

Mattioli, G. (2016) ‘Transport needs in a climate-constrained world: A novel framework to reconcile social and environmental sustainability in transport’. Energy Research and Social Science, 18, 118-128. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2016.03.025

Mattioli, G., Anable, J. & Vrotsou, K. (2016) ‘Car dependent practices: findings from a sequence pattern mining study of UK time use data’. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 89, 56-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2016.04.010

Mattioli, G. & Anable, J. (2017) ‘Gross polluters for food shopping travel: an activity-based typology’. Travel Behaviour and Society 6:19-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.tbs.2016.04.002.

Mattioli, G., Wadud, Z. & Lucas, K. (2018) ‘Vulnerability to fuel price increases in the UK: A household level analysis’. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 113, 227-242.

Morley, J. (2018) ‘Rethinking energy services: The concept of ‘meta-service’ and implications for demand reduction and servicizing policy’. Energy Policy, 122, 563-569.

Morley, J., Widdicks, K. & Hazas, M. (2018) ‘Digitalisation, energy and data demand: The impact of Internet traffic on overall and peak electricity consumption’. Energy Research & Social Science, 38, 128-137.

Mullen, C. & Marsden, G. (2015) ‘Mobility Justice in Low Carbon Energy Transitions’. Energy Research and Social Science. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2016.03.026

Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Smits, M. (2017) ‘Cold chains in Hanoi and Bangkok: Changing systems of provision and practice’. Journal of Consumer Culture. DOI: 10.1177/1469540517717783

Rinkinen, J., Jalas, M. & Shove, E. (2015) ‘Object Relations in Accounts of Everyday Life’. Sociology 49(5), 870-885. DOI: 10.1177/0038038515577910

Royston, S., Selby, J. & Shove, E. (2018) ‘Invisible energy policies: A new agenda for energy demand reduction’, Energy Policy, 123: 127 – 135. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.08.052

López-Rodríguez, M. A., Santiago, I., Trillo-Montero, D., Torriti, J. & Moreno-Munoz, A. (2013) ‘Analysis and modeling of active occupancy of the residential sector in Spain: An indicator of residential electricity consumption’. Energy Policy, 62: 742. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.095

Shove, E. (2014) ‘Putting Practice into Policy: Reconfiguring Questions of Consumption and Climate Change’. Contemporary Social Science, 9(4), 415-429. DOI: 10.1080/21582041.2012.692484

Shove, E. (2017) ‘What is wrong with energy efficiency?’, Building Research and Information, DOI: 10.1080/09613218.2017.1361746

Shove, E. & Walker, G. (2014) ‘What Is Energy For?: Social Practice and Energy Demand’. Theory, Culture and Society, 31(5), 41-58. DOI: 10.1177/0263276414536746

Shove, E., Walker, G. & Brown, S. (2013) ‘Transnational Transitions: The Diffusion and Integration of Mechanical Cooling’. Urban Studies, 51(7), 1506-1519. DOI: 10.1177/0042098013500084

Shove, E., Walker, G. & Brown, S. (2014) ‘Material Culture, Room Temperature and the Social Organisation of Thermal Energy’. Journal of Material Culture, 19(2), 113-124. DOI: 10.1177/1359183514525084

Shove, E., Watson, M. & Spurling, N. (2015) ‘Conceptualising Connections: Energy Demand, Infrastructures and Social Practices’. European Journal of Social Theory, 18(3), 274-287. DOI: 10.1177/1368431015579964

Simcock, N. & Mullen, C. (2016) ‘Energy Demand for Everyday Mobility and Domestic Life: Exploring the Social Justice Implications’. Energy Research and Social Science. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2016.05.019

Simcock, N., Walker, G. & Day, R. (2016) ‘Fuel Poverty in the UK: Beyond Heating?’, People, Place and Policy, 10(1), 25-41. DOI: 10.3351/ppp.0010.0001.003

Spurling, N. (2018) ‘Matters of time: Materiality and the changing temporal organisation of everyday energy consumption’. Journal of Consumer Culture, 0(0), 1-18.
DOI: 10.1177/1469540518773818

Torriti, J. (2017) ‘Understanding the timing of energy demand through time use data: Time of the day dependence of social practices’. Energy Research & Social Science, 25, 37-47. DOI 10.1016/j.erss.2016.12.004

Torriti, J. (2014) ‘A Review of Time Use Models of Residential Electricity Demand’. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 37, 265-272. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.034

Torriti, J., Druckman, A., Anderson, B., Yeboah, G. &Hanna, R. (2015) ‘Peak Residential Electricity Demand and Social Practices: Deriving Flexibility and Greenhouse Gas Intensities from Time Use and Locational Data’. Indoor and Built Environment, 24(7), 891-912. DOI: 10.1177/1420326X15600776

Torriti, J. & Grunewald, P. (2014) ‘Demand Side Response: Patterns in Europe and Future Policy Perspectives under Capacity Mechanisms’. Economics of Energy and Environment Policy, 3(1), 87-105.

Trentmann, F. & Carlsson-Hyslop, A. (2017) ‘The evolution of energy demand in Britain: Politics, daily life, and public housing, 1920s-1970s’, The Historical Journal DOI: 10.1017/S0018246X17000255

Wadud, Z., Royston, S. & Selby, J. (2019) ‘Modelling energy demand from higher education institutions: A case study of the UK’Applied Energy, 233-232: 816-826.

Walker, G. (2014) ‘The Dynamics of Energy Demand: Change, Rhythm and Synchronicity’, Energy Research and Social Science, 1, 49-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.012

Walker, G. (2015) ‘De La Précarité a La Justice Energetique’, La Revue Durable, 39-43.

Walker, G. (2015) ‘The Right to Energy: Meaning, Specification and the Politics of Definition’, L’Europe en Formation, 337, 26-38.

Walker, G., Simcock, N. & Day, R. (2016) ‘Necessary Energy Uses and a Minimum Standard of Living in the United Kingdom: Energy Justice or Escalating Expectations?’, Energy Research and Social Science. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2016.02.007

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Book chapters

Blue, S. & Shove, E. (2016) ‘How social practices generate, carry and require knowledge and know-how’. In Orr, K., Nutley, S., Russell, S., Bain, R., Hacking, B. & Moran, C. (eds.) Knowledge and Practice in Business and Organisations. London: Routledge

Blue, S. & Spurling, N. (2017) ‘Qualities of connective tissue in hospital life: how complexes of practices change’. In Hui, A. Schatzki, T. and Shove, E (eds.) The Nexus of Practices: Connections, constellations, practitioners. London: Routledge.

Butler, C. & Parkhill, K. (2016) ‘Politics and governance for practice in a post-carbon world’. In Roberts, T., Butler, C., Howarth, C. & Hargreaves, T. (eds.) Re-Configuring Everyday Practices for a Post-carbon World.  BSA Sociological Futures Series, London: Routledge.

Carlsson-Hyslop, A. (2018) ‘The construction of central heating in Britain’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Cass, N., Faulconbridge, J. & Connaughton, J. (2018) ‘The office: How standards define ‘normal’ design practices and work infrastructures’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Chappells, H. & Trentmann, F. (2015) ‘Sustainable Consumption in History: Ideas, Resources and Practices’. In Reisch, L., & Thogersen, J. (eds.) Handbook of Research on Sustainable Consumption. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Chappells, H. & Trentmann, F. (2018) ‘Disruption in and across time’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Coutard, O. & Shove, E. (2018) ‘Infrastructures, practices and the dynamics of demand’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Routledge: Oxon.

Grandclément, C., Pierre, M., Shove, E. & Nadaî, A. (2018) ‘Contentious interfaces : Exploring the junction between collective provision and individual consumption’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Routledge: Oxon.

Harrison, C. (2018) ‘Wires’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Routledge: Oxon.

Hazas, M. & Strengers, Y. (2019) ‘Promoting Smart Homes’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 78-88.

Hui, A. (2017) ‘Variation and the intersection of practices’. In Hui, A., Schatzki, T., & Shove, E. (eds.) The Nexus of Practices: Connections, constellations, practitioners. London: Routledge 

Macrorie, R., Daly, M. & Spurling, N. (2014) ‘Can ‘systems of practice’ help to analyse wide-scale socio-technical change?’. In Foulds, C., & Jensen, C. L (eds.) Practices, the Built Environment and Sustainability – A Thinking Note Collection. Cambridge, Copenhagen, London: GSI, DIST, BSA, CCSG.

Mattioli, G. & Colleoni, M. (2016) ‘Transport Disadvantage, Car Dependence and Urban Form’. In Pucci, P., &  Colleoni, M. (eds.) Understanding Mobilities for Designing Contemporary Cities. Springer.

Marsden, G. (2019) ‘Rebound’.  In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector.Routledge: London. 39-47.

Morley, J. (2017) ‘Technologies within and beyond practices’. In Hui, A., Schatzki, T.,  & Shove, E. (eds.) The Nexus of Practices: Connections, constellations, practitioners. London: Routledge.

Morley, J. (2018) ‘Unleashing the internet: The normalisation of wireless connectivity’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies.  Oxon: Routledge.

Morley, J. (2018) ‘How Software Matters: Connective Tissue and Self-Driving Cars’. In Maller, C. & Strengers, Y. (eds.) Social Practices and Dynamic Non-Humans: Nature, Materials and Technologies. Palgrave Macmillan.

Morley, J. (2019) ‘Energy Services’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 15-26.

Rinkinen, J. (2018) ‘Chopping, stacking and burning wood: Rhythms and variations in provision’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Rinkinen, J. & Shove, E. (2019) ‘Energy Demand’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 7-14.

Rinkinen, J. & Shove, E. (2019) ‘The Energy Trilemma’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 91-102.

Royston, S. & Selby, J. (2019) ‘Non-Energy Policy’ In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 112-118.

Shove, E. (2015) ‘Infrastructures and Practices: Networks Beyond the City’. In Coutard, C., & Rutherford, J. (eds.) Beyond the Networked City: Infrastructure Reconfigurations and Urban Change in the North and South. London: Routledge.

Shove, E. (2015) ‘Linking Low Carbon Policy and Social Practice’. In Strengers, Y. & Maller, C. (eds.) Social Practices, Intervention and Sustainability: Beyond Behaviour Change. London: Routledge.

Shove, E. (2017) ‘Matters of practice’. In Hui, A., Schatzki, T. & Shove, E. (eds.) The Nexus of Practices: Connections, constellations, practitioners. London: Routledge.

Shove, E. (2019) ‘Energy Efficiency’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 29-38.

Shove, E. & Cass, N. (2019) ‘Low Hanging Fruit’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 59-67.

Shove, E., Rinkinen, J. & Torriti, J. (2019) ‘Introduction’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 1-4.

Shove, E., Rinkinen, J. & Torriti, J. (2019) ‘Postscript: Can Energy Researchers and Policy Makers Change their Spots?’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 119-127.

Shove, E., Trentmann, F. & Watson, M. (2018) ‘Introduction – infrastructures in practice: The evolution of demand in networked societies’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Shove, E., Watson, M. & Trentmann, F. (2018) ‘Infrastructures in practice: Implications for the future’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Smits, M. (2018) ‘Situating electrification: Examples of infrastructure-practices dynamics from Thailand and Laos’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Spurling, N. (2018) ‘Making space for the car at home: Planning, priorities and practices’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked Societies. Oxon: Routledge.

Spurling, N. & Blue, S. (2014) ‘Entities, performances and interventions’. In Foulds, C. & Jensen, C. L. (eds.) Practices, the Built Environment and Sustainability – A Thinking Note Collection. Cambridge, Copenhagen, London: GSI, DIST, BSA, CCSG

Strengers, Y. (2018) ‘Prices as instruments of demand management: Interpreting the signals’. In Shove, E. & Trentmann, F. (eds.) Infrastructures in Practice: The Dynamics of Demand in Networked SocietiesOxon: Routledge.

Torriti, J. (2014) ‘Demand Side Management: Potenzialita, Barrier, Politiche’. In Clo, A., Clo, S. & Boffa, F. (eds.) Riforme Elettriche Tra Efficienza Ed Equita. Percorsi. il Mulino.

Torriti, J. (2019) ‘Flexibility’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 103-111/

Torriti, J. (2019) ‘Elasticity’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 48-56.

Walker, G. (2015) ‘Beyond Individual Responsibility: Sustainable Practices, Capabilities and the Case for a Rights-Based Politics of Social Change’. In Strengers, Y. & Maller, C. (eds.) Social Practices, Intervention and Sustainability. London: Routledge.

Walker, G. (2019) ‘Keeping the Lights On’. In Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (eds.) Energy Fables: Challenging Ideas in the Energy Sector. Routledge: London. 68-77.

Watson, M. (2017) ‘Placing power in practice theory’. In Hui, A. Schatzki, T. & Shove, E. (eds.) The Nexus of Practices: Connections, constellations, practitioners. London: Routledge 

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Conference proceedings

Bates, O., Hazas, M., Friday, A., Morley, J. & Clear, A. K. (2014) Towards an Holistic View of the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Domestic Media and IT. In Jones, M., Palanque, P., Schmidt, A. & Grossman, T. (eds.) Proceedings of CHI 2014: One of a CHInd.  Toronto, Canada. ACM, 1173-1182. DOI: 10.1145/2556288.2556968

Bates, O., Knowles, B., Clear, A., Hazas, M., Friday, A. & Lord, C. (2015) Exploring (un)sustainable growth of digital technologies in the home. Proceedings of ICT4S 2015 Conference. Copenhagen

Burkinshaw, J. (2016) Creative vs non-creative: The role of flexible working practices on travel demand. Paper prepared for the WCTRS conference.

Clear, A., Friday, A., Hazas, M. & Lord, C. (2014) Catch my drift?: Achieving comfort more sustainably in conventionally heated buildings. Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Design Interactive Systems ACM Press: New York, 1015-1024. DOI: 10.1145/2598510.2598529.

Grandclément, C., Pierre, M. & Shove, E. (2015) How infrastructures and consumers interact: insights from the interface. Proceedings of ECEEE Conference.

Hazas, M., Morely, J., Bates, O. & Friday, A. (2016) Are there limits to growth in data traffic? LIMITS ’16. Irvine, CA, USA. DOI: 10.1145/2926676.2926690

Lord, C., Hazas, M., Clear, A. K., Bates, O., Whittam, R., Morley, J. & Friday, A. (2015) Demand in My Pocket: Mobile Devices and the Data Connectivity Marshalled in Support of Everyday Practice. In Begole, B., Kim, J., Inkpen, K. and Woo, W. (eds.) Proceedings of CHI Conference: One of a CHInd.  Toronto, Canada. ACM, 2729-2738. DOI: 10.1145/2702162

Mattioli, G. (2015) Energy-related economic stress at the interface between transport, housing and fuel poverty: a multinational study. Proceedings of 2nd International Days of Sociology of Energy Conference. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3851.1207

Mattioli, G., Lucas K, & Marsden, G. (2016) The affordability of household transport costs: quantifying the incidence of car-related economic stress in Great Britain. Proceedings of 48th Annual UTSG Conference, Bristol. DOI: 10.1177/0042098017712682

Pierre, M. & Fulda, A. S. (2015) Driving an EV: a new practice? How electric vehicle private users overcome limited battery range through their mobility practice. Proceedings of ECEEE Conference.

Spurling, N. (2015) Rhythms and Patterns of Daily Life from 1950-2000: The changing qualities of energy demand.  Proceedings of ECEEE Conference

DEMAND Conference 2016 proceedings include 83 papers that were provided as written versions of presentations at the Conference. Their authors have agreed that we can now make them more widely available.  In making use of these papers please note the statements at the top of each of paper about conditions of use and contacting the authors before quoting.  Not all of the papers listed in the programme have written versions available.

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Online writing

Anable, J., Cass, N., Jones, I., Lord, C. & Pothitou, M. (2017) The 365 days of Christmas: connections between time, space and energy demand. This piece of writing examines how social practices previously tethered to particular times and temporal rhythms have become detached and stretched in our increasingly 24 hr, 365 day society. It explores the role of globalisation and technology, and the implications for energy demand, and asks if physical and biological temporalities are the only limits to ratcheting energy use.

Blue, S. (2017) Institutional Rhythms: Ideas and Opportunities for Energy and Mobility DEMAND Management in the NHS . This research briefing paper was prepared in collaboration with the Institutional Rhythms and Energy Demand Working Group and presented to the Northern England Sustainability and Health Network (23/05/17). It present ideas and opportunities for energy and mobility demand management in the NHS.

Butler, C., Day, R. & Holmes, T. (2017) Knowing energy demand without metrics (or, what do we need metrics for anyway?). This is a short, polemical piece which questions the need and utility of quantified metrics in knowing and responding to energy demand. It argues for the greater importance of experiential knowledge, narratives and principles. It was written at the November 2016 DEMAND Clan Gathering.

Carlsson-Hyslop, A. (2015) Tales from a well-wrapped historian: Smart meters and the management of heating. Originally posted on Sustainable Consumption Institute.

Cass, N. & Shove, E. (2017) Changing Energy Demand. This extended cross-cutting research insight identifies five different understandings of energy demand – what it is, where it comes from, and crucially how it changes. Conceptualisations of energy demand as an outcome of economic processes, behaviour, technological efficiency, socio-technical change and social practices are explored and compared. The implications of each for different strategies for steering change and making and evaluating policy are also laid out

Cox, E., Royston, S. & Selby, J. (2016) The Impacts of Non-Energy Policies on the Energy System: A Scoping Paper. UKERC

Diamond, R. & Shove, E. (2015) Defining efficiency: What is “equivalent service” and why does it matter?.  “Energy efficiency” is commonly defined as “using less energy to provide the same service”. This short article asks how  the “same” service or “given level of amenity” defined, who determines equivalence, and why does equivalence matter for energy demand reduction.

Hazas, M. (2015) Society pushes to go faster, but data binges carry environmental costs. The Conversation. Given the resources marshalled to support continued rises in data volume and ever-faster speeds, we should also be debating what kinds of digital services have real social importance. it’s great that it’s so easy to keep in contact with close friends and family, almost anywhere in the world. Yet at a time when we are battling to keep carbon emissions under control, can we really justify the energy consumption involved in streaming cat videos in ever-higher definition?

Hui, A. & Shove, E. (2013) All this talk about lights hides bigger energy challenges. The Conversation. The rhetoric of “keeping the lights on” is as misleading as it is compelling. Though there are billions of lights in the UK’s homes and in places of work and recreation, these are never on all at the same time. Many are off for a large part of the day and in any case lighting does not account for a very high percentage of energy use.

Hui, A., Shove, E. & Walker, G. (2013) School holiday shakeup brings unintended consequences. The Conversation. Changing the length, timing, or coordination of school holidays would have a big impact on the ways in which daily lives are scheduled, and hence on the timing of when energy is used. De-synchronising school holidays would have tangible, but unintended and unanticipated consequences for energy demand.

Kloppenburg, S., Smale, R. & Verkade, N. (2016) (Em)powering the household? Emerging energy practices around decentralised storage of solar energy. The rise of renewable energy generated by wind turbines and PV poses challenges to the balancing of supply and demand of electricity. Solar panels only generate energy during the day whereas a peak in consumption takes place in the evening. Storage of renewable energy near to their decentralised sources, at the domestic or local level, is increasingly seen as a solution to this problem. This short think piece focuses on questions and issues around the role of households and householders in decentralised electricity storage and emerging energy storage models and services.

Marsden, G. (2013) New runways to support leisure even as transport at home is cut. The Conversation. A discussion of seemingly contradictory policy approaches to different forms of transport demand.

Marsden, G. (2016) Here’s why adaptability is the key to coping with transport disasters. The Conversation. Floods caused by Storm Desmond left more than 2500 homes without power, washed away bridges, closed schools and hospitals and caused serious damage to homes and businesses across swathes of northern England and Scotland. This article explains why we should see these events as opportunities to try out new ways of doing things and getting to places.

Morley, J. & Shove, E. (2017) The Many Futures of Decarbonisation. A short piece of writing that discusses energy policy in relation to energy demand.  The piece aims to challenge the dominant trend of separating supply and demand when focusing on technologies and decarbonisation.

Morley, J. (2014) Size is everything at Christmas and your oven is no exception. The Conversation. Ovens are designed and optimised for roasting large birds. As a result, they are typically oversized for regular use – making their total energy consumption greater than necessary. And it is not only overs that are designed to cope with the demands of Christmas. This article points to questions about the relation between technical provision, sizing for the peak, and actual patterns of consumption and demand.

Mullen, C. (2016) Freedom of movement and fairness: Transforming transport planning for social and environmental justice. A think-piece for Friends of the Earth’s Big Ideas Project

Rinkinen, J., Goddard, I. & Marsden, G. (2017) Normalising flexibility in demand: learning from peaks.  This is a short reflection on the possibilities for applying strategies for reducing peak load to the broader challenge of reducing baseload demand in general. It was written at the November 2016 DEMAND Clan Gathering.

Rinkinen, J., Shove, E. & Marsden, G. (2018) DEMAND Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (17th edition). The DEMAND Dictionary presents revised terms and concepts through which energy can be known and understood.

Royston, S. (2018) Reponse to BEIS Call for evidence on ‘Helping businesses to improve the way they use energy’

Selby, J. Royston, S. & Shove, E. (2017) Report from a one-day conference at the UK Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Several authors. (2015) Reflections on the Lancaster power cuts of December 2015. DEMANDers in Lancaster were able to experience first hand the effects of flooding caused by Storm Desmond the left 55,000 homes without power in December 2015. The power cuts problematise what is ‘normal’ and reveal what is ‘needed’.

Shove, E. (2014) Smart meters don’t make us any smarter about energy use. The Conversation. Energy bills are higher on the political agenda than ever before and we are constantly being told that smart meters will help us make better decisions and have more control over the energy we use. But evidence shows that these new technologies are not making us more savvy.

Shove, E. & Watson, M. (2015) No more meters? Let’s make energy a service, not a commodity. The Conversation. Imagine never again receiving an energy bill. Instead, you could pay a flat fee for “comfort”, “cleanliness” or “home entertainment” alongside a premium for more energy-demanding TVs, kettles or fridge-freezers. This isn’t the stuff of science fiction – it’s emerging right now. Recent changes in technology and regulation are enabling the development of new ways to provide electricity and gas.

Spurling, N. (2014) Tesla’s techno-cars are the right answer to the wrong question. The Conversation. The technology of the Tesla car is certainly impressive but it is concerning to see innovations of this kind being promoted as the key to a more sustainable future – especially if they come at the expense of pursuing other ways to solve the problem such as reducing the demand for mobility in the first place.

Spurling, N. & Welch, D. (2014) Unsustainable practices: Why electric cars are a failure of ambition. Originally published on Talking Climate. Electric cars are another example of the common ‘techno-fix’ approach to climate change – in which futuristic technologies resolve the problem while everyday life carries on as normal.

Strengers, Y. (2014) Fly or die: Air travel and the internationalisation of academic careers. Business air travel is on the rise globally, especially in knowledge organisations such as universities. Academics who study energy consumption, climate change and sustainability find themselves in an especially awkward position. Their job is to develop ideas about how to reduce and address a growing list of environmental and energy problems, but to take these ideas to audiences around the world they ‘need’ to travel.

Strengers, Y. & Bille, M. (2016) The temporal dynamics of being an international visiting scholar. Academia is increasingly concerned with international connections and collaboration. While the benefits of such endeavours are increasingly discussed, we rarely acknowledge their effects. In this piece, we are interested in the ways in which one globalising move – the appointment of the ‘visiting academic’ – disrupts and rearranges the temporal routines of academics’ everyday lives.

Walker, G. (2016) De-energising and de-carbonising society: Making energy (only) do work where it is really needed. A think-piece for Friends of the Earth’s Big Ideas Project

Walker, G. (2014) Why room temperature needs to be taken down a notch. The Conversation. What’s a healthy room temperature? On releasing its Cold Weather Plan for 2014, Public Health England has recently revised its recommended minimum levels to keep in good health. No longer, they say, do living rooms need to be kept at 21°C and bedrooms at 18°C, as used to be advised. Now all rooms can be kept at 18°C with “minimal risk” to the health of “a sedentary person wearing suitable clothing”. It’s a rethink of just three degrees but, as with outdoor climate change, a few degrees of indoor climate change can make a significant difference.

Walker, G. (2015) Scrapping zero carbon homes is senseless policy violence. The Conversation.

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Kris De Decker writing

Kris De Decker has produced a number of blog-style articles relating to DEMAND projects. See below for his DEMAND-specific writing.  Kris also writes his own blog

Kris presented a seminar to the DEMAND Centre in July 2015 about The Perspective of Forgotten Technology

De Decker, K. (December 2018) Keeping Some of the Lights On: Redefining Energy Security In this article, Kris addresses the way in which current strategies to achieve energy security ignore the fact that as society depends more on energy sources for its daily functioning, it becomes more vulnerable if the supply of energy is interrupted.

De Decker, K. (April 2018) We Can’t Do it Ourselves. In this article, Kris questions the impetus placed on individuals in the pursuit of sustainable lifestyles; how effective is individual action when it is systemic social change that is needed? French translation available here.

De Decker, K. (January 2018) How much energy do we need?  In this article, Kris considers how energy use is calculated looking at minimum and maximum use to try and ascertain how much energy we need.


De Decker, K. (January 2018) Bedazzled by Energy Efficiency  In this article, Kris discusses how, rather than forcusing on energy efficiency, transforming present ways of life is key to mitigating climate change and decreasing our dependence on fossil fuels.


De Decker, K. (October 2017) Where Infrastructures and Appliances Meet  In this article, Kris De Decker discusses the blurred boundaries between universal provision and individual consumption, and reflects on how the struggle to define and allocate the roles and responsibilities between state and market is crucial for the evolution of energy demand.

De Decker, K. (April 2017) Why do (Business) People Travel?  In this piece, Kris De Decker looks at how investments in telecommunications aimed at reducing business travel actually serves to compliment or encourage it by spatially extending business networks.  For related materials see Business travel.

De Decker, K. (February 2017) Rebooting Energy Demand: Automatic software updates In this short article, Kris De Decker investigates some of the ways in which energy demand increases behind the scenes.  Whether you want them or not, automatic computer, phone and other software updates automatically generate energy demand. This case is indicative of what might be a much wider trend in ‘demand-making’.   For related materials see How is energy demand made?

De Decker, K. (November 2016). The Curse of the Modern Office The information society promises to dematerialise society and make it more sustainable, but modern office and knowledge work has itself become a large and rapidly growing consumer of energy and other resources.  For related materials see Offices and Office Work.

De Decker, K. (November, 2016) Why the Office Needs a Typewriter Revolution Digital equipment is one of the main drivers behind the quickly growing energy use of modern office work. Could we rethink and redesign office equipment, combining the best of mechanical and digital devices?

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Submissions to government departments

Response to the National Infrastructure Commission Consultation on a National Infrastructure Assessment by Greg Marsden and the Commission on Travel Demand, December 2017

Industrial Strategy. A response by DEMANDers in April 2017 to a Government consultation seeking views on the approach to building a modern industrial strategy that addresses long-term challenges to the UK economy.

The Impact of Population Change and Demography on Future Infrastructure Demand. A response by DEMANDers to a Government consultation on the governance, structure and operation of the National Infrastructure Commission.  The original consultation document and response to the consultation are available via the UK Government website.

BEIS call for evidence A Smart Flexible Energy System DEMAND submission. Response by DEMANDers in January 2017 to a government consultation exploring strategic choices about new demands on our energy systems, primarily through the application new technologies and smart systems.

The next frontier in our digital revolution. Submission to UK Digital Strategy, January, 2016 by Mike Hazas and Janine Morley. The DEMAND Centre responded to UK Digital Strategy’s call for evidence, focusing on how resilience and energy demand must be considered alongside economic growth.

Electricity interconnection and storage. Submission to The Infrastructure Commission, December 2015 by Elizabeth Shove. Our response to the UK Infrastructure Commission call for evidence on how changes to existing market frameworks, increased interconnection and new technologies in demand-side management and energy storage can better balance supply and demand.

Design and behaviour in the built environment. Submission to the Design Commission Enquiry, September 2014 by Noel Cass, James Faulconbridge and Elizabeth Shove. Drawing on DEMAND’s research on commercial offices and their design, this submission focuses on how the built environment shapes practices concerning energy use.

Resilience of electricity infrastructure. Submission to the House of Lords Inquiry, September 2014 by Gordon Walker. Concerned with electricity infrastructure’s resilience to future demand, this submission recommends that end-use and changes to these practices should be considered, rather than assumed.

Electricity demand-side measures. Submission to DECC Select Committee Inquiry, July 2014 by Jacopo Torriti and Mitchell Curtis. This submission responds to three of the questions in the call for evidence concerning demand side response.

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Working Papers

This collection of working papers is a selection of mini essays, and conversations between
researchers in DEMAND.

Please be sure to accredit the authors and their papers for any ideas that are used elsewhere by using the full citations given below. Some working papers include terms of use, be sure to check these before making use of any ideas in these papers.

Working Papers 4-15 are a collection presented at the workshop “Demanding ideas: where theories of practice might go next”, held 18-20th June 2014 in Windermere, UK. The purpose of the event was to identify issues and topics that constitute ‘unfinished business’  for people interested in social theories of practice and in the relevance of such ideas for the DEMAND Centre. These working papers are also available as a collection. 

Blue, S. (2014) Working Paper 11: Demanding ideas – Time, Difference and Change: Moments and Rhythms of Practice

Jalas, M. (2014) Working Paper 9: Demanding ideas – Temporal Unfolding of Demand. 

Kuijer, L. (2014) Working Paper 12: Demanding ideas – A call for more practice theory on the future.

Hui, A. (2014) Working Paper 4: Demanding ideas – Manifesto.

Morley, J. (2014) Working Paper 8: Demanding ideas – Interesting topics & directions for practice theories. 

Schäfer, H. (2014) Working Paper 7: Demanding ideas –  Current issues in practice theory. 

Schatzki, T. (2014) Working Paper 5: Demanding ideas – Larger Scales. 

Shove, E. (2014) Working Paper 10: Demanding ideas – Infrastructures, material arrangements and practices. 

Spurling, N. (2014) Working Paper 13: Demanding ideas – The relationship between (practice) theory and policy intervention: an in-progress framework.

Trentmann, F. (2014) Working Paper 14: Demanding ideas – Commentary on DEMANDing ideas, Theoretical Boundaries and Content. 

van Lente, H. (2014) Working Paper 15: Demanding ideas – Tensions in the mini manifestos. 

Harro was invited to comment on the Demanding ideas mini-manifestos produced by Janine Morley, Elizabeth Shove, Stanley Blue, Lenneke Kuijer and Nicola Spurling.

Watson, M. (2014) Working Paper 6: Demanding ideas – Placing power in practice theory.

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Other Working Papers

Blue, S., Morley, J., Marsden, G. & Shove, E. (2016) Working Paper 17: The dynamics  of demand: Methods and concepts for thinking about change

This was a discussion paper for participants in the change and steering stream of the DEMAND conference, April 2016

Mattioli, G., Shove, E. & Torriti, J. (2014) Working Paper 1: The timing and societal synchronisation of energy demand

This working paper summarises a presentation given on 10th December 2013 to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. All the authors are part of the DEMAND research centre.

Reardon, L., Marsden, G. & Shove, E. (2016) Working Paper 18: The dynamics of demand: Thinking about steering

A discussion paper for participants in the change and steering stream of the DEMAND conference, April 2016.

Simcock, N. & Walker, G. (2016) Working Paper 16: Fuel poverty and non-heating energy uses

Spurling, N. (2014) Working Paper 2: Demand by design: How our infrastructure and professions shape what we do. This essay outlines some initial thoughts on the relationship between end-use practices, infrastructures and the histories, systems, structures and practices of the planning professions

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